Monday, December 19, 2016

Lights! Camera! Blackout? A story of a friendship restored during the holidays.

Twas the night before Christmas, and all through the home,
no devices were running, not even a phone.
The children did gather, totally bored,
in hopes that the power would soon be restored.
Christmas Eve was unseasonably mild. The power went out right after sunset when people were turning their Christmas lights on. Shortly afterwards, Fred rolled his generator into position not far from the kitchen window. He had purchased it a few months earlier in preparation for Hurricane Matthew. It was still shiny and new. It was also easier to crank up than his lawnmower.

After the generator warmed up, Fred connected the refrigerator, the TV, and some lights. The generator was loud, but the power it provided was well worth it. Wilma, Fred’s wife said, “I’m really glad we have that, even though we didn’t use it for long when the storm came through.”
“Yeah, me too,” Fred replied. “Aside from stepping over the electric cords, life’s almost normal tonight. I’m going outside to see what’s going on with our neighbors.”
Walking to the end of the driveway, Fred heard other generators. However, they were all in the distance. It sounded like his was the only one running nearby. As he approached the end of the driveway, he saw no evidence of electricity in his neighbors’ homes.
With a hint of smug satisfaction in his voice, he told his wife, “It looks like we’re the only ones on the street with a generator.”
“So, Barney and Betty have no power?” Wilma asked.
Fred cleared his throat before answering. “Well, honey, they live right next door and I don’t hear a generator over there. Furthermore, their lights aren’t on. So, I think it’s fair to conclude that they have no power.”
“Maybe it will come back on soon,” she said.
“Yeah maybe,” Fred replied as he turned on the TV. He wanted to see if there was any news about the mysterious power outage.
The talking heads on the local news programs all said the same thing. “A JEA spokesperson says that the utility is working to restore the power, although they have not yet determined the exact cause.”
“That’s not very encouraging. They don’t know what the problem is but they’re working to fix it,” Fred told Wilma.
“Is there anything we can do for Barney and Betty?”
Fred and Barney had been best friends and fishing buddies for over a decade, right up until early November. In the leadup to the election, they argued a lot over politics. Then they stopped speaking to one another.
In a perturbed tone of voice, Fred said, “Why would you ask me that?”
“Because Barney is your best friend, and it’s time to put this insane election behind us. Can you stop being so hard-headed?”
Fred softened up. “Yeah, I guess you’re right. We can spare some power. I’ll take a walk over there.”
Wilma told him, “No gloating. Over the election or the generator.”
Barney had a flashlight in his hand when he answered the front door. “Hey, Fred. How’s it going?”
“OK. How are you and Betty?”
“Well, I'm living in the dark, like a caveman. Betty said she enjoyed the cold dinner by candlelight. Me, not so much.”
Fred said, “I just saw the news and it doesn’t seem like anyone knows when the power will come back.”
“I heard that on the radio. Hopefully it will come back on soon.”
“Who knows? After Matthew, some people were back up in a few hours and some people were out for a week. I’ve got more wattage than I need. If you want, you can throw a line over the fence and I’ll connect it to my generator. You could at least power up the fridge and a few lights.”
“Thanks, Fred. That’s very generous of you. Our refrigerator is packed with stuff for tomorrow and Betty has been getting antsy about it.”
After they got things connected, Barney asked Fred, “Would you like to sit down for a cold one before you go home?”
“You know I would,” Fred answered.
They seated themselves at the kitchen table.
“I really appreciate you hooking me up Fred. It’s easy to take electricity for granted till you lose it. Having some light back in the house is nice.”
“It’s no big deal. Thanks for the brew,” Fred said after taking a long sip.
“This election was the craziest I’ve ever seen,” Barney said.
“You got that right. I’m glad it’s behind us.”
“Agreed, old friend.”
“So, do you have any big plans for the holidays?” Fred asked.
“Well, I’m thinking of getting up early tomorrow morning to fish. Of course, it would be a lot better with a fishing buddy. Are you up for that?”
“Fishing on Christmas morning? Sounds interesting. I’ll have to clear that with the boss, but yeah, that sounds good to me.”
“Hey, I hear something outside, and it doesn’t sound like reindeer,” Barney remarked.
Out by the street, a bucket truck parked, 
and a JEA lineman soon disembarked. 

Children gazed out their windows with glee, 
looking forward to once again lighting their trees.
After a few minutes, the lights came back on.
“Looks like the power’s back. It’s a Christmas miracle,” Barney said.
As Fred was heading out, Barney said, “Thanks again for coming over and hooking us up.”
“Thanks for being a friend, Barney. I realized something important tonight.”
“What was that, Fred?”
“Friendship is one of the greatest gifts of them all. And, like electricity, you tend to take it for granted until you lose it. Let’s not let anything stupid happen to our friendship again.”
“Agreed,” Barney nodded. “And Merry Christmas.”

Monday, November 28, 2016

Santa may cancel deliveries due to drone traffic.

Since the 1960s, when Rudolph began lighting the way, there has never been any talk of shutting down Santa’s delivery runs. However, new issues have come up which may force the cancellation of Christmas. The air traffic from holiday delivery drones has been building for several years, and an insider at the North Pole says a shutdown by Santa may be imminent because of it.

“The reindeer like to work and none of them have ever complained, formally, about extra shifts through the holidays. However, all of the reindeer are concerned about safety,” said the insider. “There is talk of forming a union. The reindeer want to be sure they’ll get back to their families, and they want their safety concerns addressed by upper management.

"Santa Claus, LLC, is very concerned about competition from holiday delivery drones. Another issue is the liability, aside from the possible death and/or dismemberment of the reindeer, associated with delivery operations. The organization’s insurance rates have skyrocketed and they now have to get a special policy to travel outside the Arctic Circle.”

One red-nosed reindeer, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said, “I was really looking forward to making the deliveries this year. Amazon, FEDEX, and others have cut into our business but we're still very competitive. We’ve retrofitted our lighting systems with LEDs to reduce our carbon hoofprint along with our energy consumption. The technology is amazing and the testing has gone well. It will be a shame if we can’t make the actual run. On the other hand, I’m as concerned about safety as any other reindeer. The substandard wages and the lack of healthcare benefits are also a problem, especially for reindeer with children.”

Saturday, September 17, 2016

The Lord's Fishing Buddies

The calling of Peter and Andrew
by James Tissot, 19th century
Did you ever wonder why Jesus chose fishermen as his disciples? I think one of the reasons is that people who make their living by fishing are very tough, both physically and mentally. Fishing for a livelihood is hard. Fishermen have to be able to withstand all kinds of weather, from searing sunny hot days to dangerous sudden storms. They work with knives, ropes, and hooks, which results in injuries from time to time. They know how to take some pain once in a while.
Fishermen are mentally tough in the sense that they sometimes have days when they do the job, but the fish just aren’t biting. Worse yet, they may have many days in a row when things go that way, days when they get scared because they don’t know how they’re going to feed their children. But fishermen also have days when everything goes right and they come home with a good catch. People who make their living by fishing understand that there are ups and downs in life.
How different that kind of attitude is from today’s supermen of the spirit, who seem to believe that walking the walk is really more like leaping from one mountaintop to the next. How different that is from the kind of folk who believe that when anything goes wrong in their lives, it’s an attack from the devil. How different that is from the kind of person who mopes around when things don’t go his or her way.
Sometime after Jesus rose from the dead, Peter and several other disciples went fishing in the Sea of Tiberias. (John 21) They fished through the night but caught nothing. When the morning came, an unfamiliar man on the shore told them to throw their nets on the other side of the boat. It probably didn’t make much sense to them. Still, they were willing to give it a shot. And they caught enough fish to stretch their nets to the limit. Then they had breakfast with the Lord. Ups and downs. Life and the spiritual journey are full of them.

The Garden of App-en

Declaration of Dependence on God

Prayer Wirless? 

Saturday, August 27, 2016

The Purposeful Persistence of Doug Vanderlaan, the Listener Who Compelled Clear Channel to Change Its Tune

This article was originally published in the Winter 2005 issue of Christian Networks Journal. 

“The more I listened, the more irresponsible content I heard. I just felt this sense of purpose. I thought to myself, ‘Somebody ought to do something. Why not me?’” Doug Vanderlaan
“One (expletive) in Jacksonville is going to change the
complete landscape of radio forever.” Bubba the Love Sponge
Long before Bono’s prime time profanity and Janet Jackson’s wardrobe malfunction, Doug Vanderlaan filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) about the indecency he was hearing on WPLA, Planet Radio, in Jacksonville. It was like David throwing a stone at Goliath. Vanderlaan isn’t a Congressman or a millionaire. He’s the father of two young men who were teens at the time. Clear Channel Communications, the owner of Planet Radio, is the biggest radio empire in the United States.
Although it took two and a half years, Vanderlaan’s tactics were devastatingly effective. In January, the FCC fined Clear Channel $755,000. Clear Channel soon instituted a corporate-wide zero tolerance policy regarding indecency, and that policy has resulted in the termination of violators. Bubba the Love Sponge is off the air, and Howard Stern has been on the ropes.
It all started in June 2001. Vanderlaan and his son, Mark, are musicians at their church. After practice one night, Vanderlaan allowed Mark, who had a learner’s permit, to drive home. Mark also picked the music, tuning in Planet Radio. The next day, when Doug got into his 1991 Corolla to go to work, he turned the radio on and heard Bubba for the first time.
Bubba’s guest was describing what viewers could see at her sexually explicit website. The web address was announced. Bubba told his audience that becoming pornographic webmasters would be a good idea for sixteen and seventeen year old boys to consider because it was a way to get a lot of sex.
“Bubba was encouraging adolescent boys to get involved with pornographic websites,” Vanderlaan says. It wasn’t the kind of thing he wanted his sons to hear. He began listening to Bubba regularly. He found out that the show he had heard was typical. Then he started writing to advertisers. “I would tape the show in the morning. Then I’d listen to it on the way to work,” he says. “I would write down the names of the advertisers. In the evening, I would take out my notebook and go through the names and find their websites, addresses, and contacts.”
Over the next several months, he wrote hundreds of letters informing Bubba’s sponsors that they were advertising on a show that was indecent and asking them to stop supporting the show. Many were not aware of the content of the program. Over a hundred advertisers pulled their ads. Bubba’s lawyer sent a letter to Vanderlaan demanding that he cease and desist. 
In August of 2001, Vanderlaan received a curious phone call from a woman who identified herself only as a Clear Channel employee. She told him that running off sponsors didn’t matter to Clear Channel, because there were plenty of other advertisers to buy the ad time. Then she encouraged him to contact the FCC. That’s exactly what he did. “I filed my initial complaint in the fall of 2001, without the help of an attorney. The FCC responded that I hadn’t proven that the show had been indecent. I didn’t know exactly how to go about the filing,” he says.
Washington D.C. attorney Arthur V. Belendiuk, who specializes in issues related to the FCC, took an interest in Vanderlaan’s efforts. Belendiuk says, “Doug Vanderlaan was exercising his right to petition a government agency. It’s unfair for a corporation to try to beat up on a citizen the way Clear Channel did. There was significant pressure for him to stop, but he kept going. That took courage.”
Working pro bono, Belendiuk helped Vanderlaan craft complaints that the FCC could act upon. The first of those was submitted in April of 2002, the second in October of 2002, and the third in January of 2003. “Getting Bubba off the air was not the goal. That would have been too narrow. Our objective was to stop content that was harmful to children,” Vanderlaan says.
The first paragraph of the final complaint reads, “As was demonstrated in Mr. Vanderlaan’s previous pleadings, Clear Channel actively markets certain of its radio station formats to children. To this young impressionable audience, Clear Channel not only broadcasts indecent material, it promotes and glorifies the use of illegal drugs.” 2
In August of last year, Belendiuk arranged a meeting between Vanderlaan and two Clear Channel executives, Peter Ferrara, V.P. of Clear Channel’s Orlando Region, and Norman Feuer, General Manager of Planet Radio. Vanderlaan presented the following list of five types of content, with examples, that he thought were harmful to children:
Use of children’s cartoon characters in sexual or drug settings.
  •  Skit with Scooby-Doo performing oral sex to get crack.
  •  “Sodomy Street” sung to tune of Sesame Street.
Graphic broadcasts or descriptions of excretory processes.
  • Prostitute urinating in can.
  • DJs drinking urine and vomiting.
Promotion and glorification of drug use.
  • Promotion of drug use websites.
  • Favorable portrayal of routine drug use by DJs.
  • Favorable portrayals of the use of rufinol for date-rape.
  • Promotion of drug paraphernalia shops.
Graphic broadcast of sexual acts.
  • Broadcast of sexual acts in the studio.
  • Broadcast of callers’ sexual acts (e.g., females masturbating).
Promotion of porno web sites.
  • Broadcasting and promoting porn website addresses.
  • Encouraging teen listeners to get involved with porn web sites.
If Clear Channel had agreed to stop those five types of content, Vanderlaan was prepared to stop writing to advertisers and to back off his complaints to the FCC. “They could have gotten out of the spotlight,” he says. The Clear Channel executives made vague promises about changes, but would not commit to stopping the specific items Vanderlaan was asking for.

Urban Pioneer

“My interest in affordable housing issues and decency on the radio merged.” Doug Vanderlaan
In the early 90s, Vanderlaan began to volunteer to build houses with Habitat for Humanity of Jacksonville. Before long, he was on the board of directors of what is now the largest Habitat affiliate in the US. “I was particularly active with training new homeowners, teaching classes on plumbing, electrical, and lawn care,” he says. Two years ago, Vanderlaan and his wife, Doris, moved into Jacksonville’s historic neighborhood of Springfield.
Several decades ago, Springfield was beautiful, with big Victorian houses on tree-lined streets. It was a thriving community on the outskirts of downtown. However, the growth stopped and Springfield deteriorated. Weeds overtook vacant lots while drug dealers and prostitutes took the streets. Shadowy hustlers roamed about after dark. Springfield became one of the most dangerous parts of the city. It happened gradually, as did the decay that has taken place in much of the media.
Urban pioneers, like the Vanderlaans, started moving in, fixing up the houses, and improving the neighborhood. Some of the houses are very nice now and more are being renovated. Many of the houses still look awful, like the one next door to the Vanderlaans’. Doug and Doris recently bought it, and they have begun to work on it. On the outside, it’s ugly. On the inside, it’s hideous. Still, Vanderlaan says it’s structurally sound enough to be rehabbed, which he estimates will take a year.
“Doris and I wanted to be part of the change that’s now happening in Springfield,” Vanderlaan says. They choose to live there because they believe that it can, once again, be a place where families can live in decent and affordable homes. They serve in the neighborhood as Block Captains, working to address issues like crime, streetlights, and garbage pickup.
Springfield isn’t yet a neighborhood where most people would feel safe walking at night. Hustlers peddle drugs in the streets. If you slow down in your car, a prostitute might try to flag you down. A recent segment of the television show Cops was filmed just four blocks from the Vanderlaans’ home. Still, Doug says things are better now than when he moved in.
Vanderlaan explains that he believes in the theological concept of reformation, for a neighborhood that appeared to be beyond repair, and for a culture that sometimes appears to be beyond redemption.

 Radio Active

“Someday, when the story of my life is written, it will say ‘He was a radio activist.’ I didn’t plan for this. It sort of fell into my lap.” Doug Vanderlaan
Vanderlaan liked chemistry because he did well at it. He thought that, as a chemist, he could have an impact in the world in a way that was very consistent with his faith. When he was a young man, he envisioned himself doing medical research or helping to develop safer methods of pest control.
He has a good job with a Fortune 500 company, but his career hasn’t always worked out the way he thought it would. “After I earned my Ph.D., I was involved in developing a new plastic for bowling balls. It was a nice, interesting job,” Doug says. “However, developing a better bowling ball didn’t seem to connect with my personal values. I continue to struggle with the challenge of connecting my career with my beliefs and values.”
For a long time, Vanderlaan has felt that the welfare of children too often takes a back seat to business interests. For example, he says that a big part of Bubba’s target audience was adolescent boys. “One thing that made this a personal issue for me is that when it all started, I had two teenaged boys. I’ve also been involved in church youth programs for boys,” Vanderlaan says. “I know what’s good for them and I know what’s bad. That show was very bad. It is irresponsible to tell teenage boys where to find pornography. Parents, teachers, and broadcasters have a responsibility to protect kids from that.”
After he heard Bubba, he quickly decided to take action. He originally thought it might take as little as six months, but he was willing to put as much as five years into the effort. “I never had any second thoughts about it,” he says. “Looking at what Bubba was doing, I thought all the pieces were in place to put a stop to it. Parents, if they understood, would be furious. Politicians would respond. Advertisers would respond. I always felt optimistic.”
Through his involvement in affordable housing issues, and throughout his career, he had learned how to resolve legal issues and how to deal with bureaucracies. When Vanderlaan got involved in the radio business, he was confident that he could learn what he needed to learn about the system.

Dealing with the FCC and Shock Jock Economics

“The most discouraging thing for me was the slowness of the FCC.” Doug Vanderlaan
When working with patent lawyers in his career or on housing issues as a volunteer, it always took time to get things done, but at least Vanderlaan had some idea of how long it would take. Working with the FCC was different. After he filed his complaints, he had no indication of how long the process would take.
“After my first complaint, I waited three or four weeks. Then I called,” he says. “I found that the FCC is slow and secretive. After many phone calls, I managed to find the person on whose desk my complaint was sitting. Her attitude seemed to be that the FCC would get back with me when they were good and ready.”
Another challenge for Vanderlaan was understanding the economics of the radio business. The shock jock format is one of the most profitable formats in radio. Young men are a very desirable demographic to advertisers. Radio hosts who can attract young men as faithful listeners make a lot of money for themselves and for their stations.
“I knew we were having an impact on the advertisers,” Vanderlaan says. “However, I also knew I didn’t fully understand the economics of the business. The strength of my letter writing campaign was substantial, but I feared that the money that show was bringing in was far greater. I assumed that when advertisers understood what Bubba was doing, they wouldn’t want anything to do with him. But some just didn’t care. Their only concern was that their ads were reaching their target demographics. That was a difficult thing for me to accept.”

Faith and Politics

Vanderlaan is a Christian. He believes Christians are called to serve God, to be agents of change in this world, and to help people who need help. “Everybody has core beliefs and values,” he says. “Christianity is the source of mine. I believe Christians need to be engaged in the culture. Too many Christians have disengaged. I think that if children are listening to shows like Bubba the Love Sponge, parents should also be listening. When we see and hear things that are harmful to children, we should try to change those things.”
Vanderlaan believes that some media commentators have tried to marginalize the issue of decency by labeling it a conservative cause. For example, many have mistakenly assumed that he’s a right-wing conservative. In fact, he’s a Democrat, and he’s quick to point out that the staunchest defender of decency at the FCC is not Chairman Michael Powell. It’s Commissioner Michael Copps, a Democrat.
“Industry, collectively, is doing next to nothing to clean up its act. But if we at the Commission could just bring ourselves to send one of these more outrageous cases to a hearing for license revocation, Big Media would get the message real quick and they would begin to take us seriously, which they don’t right now.” Michael Copps 3
Vanderlaan says, “Issues of decency don’t break down neatly along conservative-liberal lines. This is about kids. Republicans love their children. Democrats also love their children. I’m looking forward to the day when both parties are competing for the high moral ground in regard to decency.” Similar sentiments are being expressed elsewhere.
“Vulgarity overload is creating a critical mass of alliances that target big media along with bad taste. It’s not a pure liberal-versus-conservative issue anymore – and therein lies hope.” Patrick Goldstein, L.A. Times 4
“I have never seen such broad consensus on an issue. People have just said, ‘Enough is enough. These are our airwaves.’” L. Brent Bozell III, President of the Parents Television Council 5

Turning it Off, The Slippery Slope, and Confused Shock Jocks

“They and others are expressing and imposing their opinions and rights to tell us all who and what we may listen to and watch and how we should think about our lives.” Howard Stern in reference to the FCC. 6
Howard Stern and other shock jocks say that people who don’t like their shows should simply turn them off. However, as a Wall Street Journal editorial stated, “That may make for an easy sound bite. But for parents it’s no answer at all. Unless you’re thinking of sending your child to a convent school at the edge of a Spanish desert, there’s no way to turn off the culture. And implicit in this flip advice is the arrogant assumption that people getting rich off this garbage have no responsibility for what they put out.” 7
Many people have objected to the actions of the FCC because they say it is a “slippery slope” that will lead toward restrictions on free speech for political purposes. Vanderlaan acknowledges that the government’s authority to mediate any media content is, like any other government authority, one that could be abused. However, when Howard Stern and Bubba claim they’re being targeted for their political expressions, Vanderlaan unapologetically calls them liars. “They’re hiding behind a smokescreen,” he says. “Prohibiting indecency during hours when children are likely to be listening is not political censorship. It’s common sense. The real motivatorfor the shock jocks is money. FCC rules generally allow raunchy content late at night, but night-time audiences are much smaller than morning drive-time audiences. Consequently, ad time is less valuable and the shock jocks can’t earn as much.”
Vanderlaan points out that the FCC has bent over backwards to give broadcasters every benefit of the doubt. Broadcast content has to be profoundly and repeatedly indecent for the FCC to take action. Still, the shock jocks complain that the line between decency and indecency has not been adequately defined. He says, “They can’t honestly say ‘We want to abide by FCC regulations, but we just don’t understand the rules.’ In fact, Bubba used to taunt the FCC. On his show, he joked that he was on the FCC’s ten most wanted list. Ninety-nine percent of the nation’s radio stations have not been fined by the FCC. The shock jocks would have people believe that they can’t figure out what the vast majority of radio broadcasters have figured out. It’s very disingenuous. The truth is that they are perfectly capable of reading and understanding the FCC’s rules.”

From the FCC Website

“It is a violation of federal law to broadcast obscene programming at any time. It is also a violation of federal law to broadcast indecent programming during certain hours. Congress has given the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) the responsibility for administratively enforcing the law that governs these types of broadcasts. The Commission may revoke a station license, impose a monetary forfeiture, withhold or place conditions on the renewal of a broadcast license, or issue a warning, for the broadcast of obscene or indecent material.”
“The FCC has defined broadcast indecency as ‘language or material that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community broadcast standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory organs or activities.’ Indecent programming contains patently offensive sexual or excretory references that do not rise to the level of obscenity. Indecent programming may, however, be restricted in order to avoid its broadcast during times of the day when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience.”
“Consistent with a federal statute and federal court decisions interpreting the indecency statute, the Commission adopted a rule pursuant to which broadcasts -- both on television and radio -- that fit within the indecency definition and that are aired between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. are subject to indecency enforcement action.” 8

Fortune, Fame, and the Fixer Upper Next Door

The Vanderlaans have been harassed by phone and through e-mail. In the month following the FCC announcement of fines for Clear Channel, the Vanderlaans received over twenty disturbing phone calls or messages on their answering machine. The day Clear Channel fired Bubba, they received this threatening message: “Do you think you’re a big man now, getting somebody fired? Motherf---ing pussy! Don’t be surprised if the police catch you someday for having drugs in your car.”
People might assume Doug Vanderlaan is as angry and aggressive as the shock jocks. In fact, he’s soft-spoken. He’s also very determined when he sees or hears something he can change, whether it’s cracked sidewalks in his neighborhood or a shock jock spewing indecency. He’s deliberate and methodical, and he has the tenacity to follow through on what he initiates.
Vanderlaan has been quoted on CNN’s website and in many newspapers, from the Miami Herald to the Los Angeles Times. He has appeared on numerous television shows, including the O’Reilly Factor and FOX News’ Breaking Point. He has obtained a degree of celebrity that most of the contestants on Survivor and American Idol can only dream about. But, unlike any of them, he never sought fame or fortune. All he wanted to do was to make a positive difference in his culture.
Now that he has become somewhat famous, he certainly could exploit that for profit, the way many people would. But that doesn’t interest him. He’s willing to talk to the media, but only if it will help to advance the cause of protecting children. So, what does he want? He seems content to go on with his life as a scientist and to continue to fix up the house next door.
Doug Vanderlaan’s efforts against indecency have had a ripple effect that goes far beyond anything he imagined at the beginning. He’s delighted with that. However, he says, “This was harder than it should have been. The FCC should have done something about this long ago. The FCC has failed in its enforcement, until recently. There obviously has been a change of heart at the FCC. I’m happy to have played a part in that.”


  1. Marcus Franklin, Listener Has No Love for Bubba’s Message, St. Petersburg Times Online, February 1, 2004. (
  2. Art Belendiuk, Indecency Complaint to the FCC filed on behalf of Doug Vanderlaan, January 24, 2003, page 3.
  3. Michael Copps, Remarks at FCC Hearing on Localism and License Renewal in San Antonio,Texas, January 28, 2004
  4. Patrick Goldstein, The Decency Debate, Los Angeles Times, Mar 28, 2004., pg. E.1.,+2004&author=Patrick+Goldstein&desc=THE+DECENCY+DEBATE%3b+The+zipping+point%3b+Vulgarity+overload+is+creating+a+critical+mass+of+alliances+that+target+big+media+along+with+bad+taste.+It%27s+not+a+pure+liberal-versus-conservative+issue+anymore+--+and+therein+lies+hope.
  5. Brent L. Bozell, Remarks posted on Parents Television Council Website on March 31, 2004, accessed April 28, 2004.
  6. Howard Stern, Howard's Response To The FCC's Actions, posted on April 8, 2004 at his website, and accessed on April 28, 2004.
  7. Wall Street Journal Editorialist, Howard’s End, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2004, page A14.
  8. Federal Communications Commission, Obscenity, Indecency, & Profanity, from the FCC Website , last reviewed 3-31-2004, accessed April 28, 2004.